Catégories
Europa Industrie Onderzoek Productie Wetgeving

News: 13th European Industrial Hemp Association Conference 2016

The Voice of the Hemp Industry

On June 1st & 2nd 2016 EIHA (European Industrial Hemp Association) held its 13th Annual Conference. It is the leading event of the sector worldwide with hundreds of participants and contributors. With EIHA & Nova Institut spearheading its organisation, the event has established itself as the central locus of both networking and technical dissemination within the Hemp Sector. It was an opportunity for the Hemplab Institute to cement various contacts made during previous projects as well as expand into new and exciting possibilities.

Standardisation, GMP / GAP & Hemp Market Projections

The repetitive theme of this year’s event, echoed by concerns from participants and contributors alike, was that of Standardisation of practices particularly GMPs & GAPs. This marks an evolution from earlier market concerns centred primarily on agricultural legislation, financial viability and agricultural techniques & equipment. It is testimony to the maturing process the industry is undergoing, with an ever growing list of products and hemp applications. The next step of this process is producing ‘mainstream’ products – particularly in the food & pharmaceutical markets – which invariably implies highest consumer standards, validation and analytical precision.

CANNABINOID ECONOMY HEMP MARKET DEVELOPMENTS HEMPLAB INSTITUTE

EIHA 2016 Conference – HEMPLAB Institute

Another marker of maturity evident during this year’s event was the presentation and discussion of much more comprehensive and authoritative market data and projections of the industry – with aptly demarcated analyses of particular sub-categories of products such as ‘self-care CBD’ products or food supplements. Key market risks relate to the lack of uniform legislation (on a European level) – a concern which was identified by our 2015 report.

Hemp: A market for Analytical Laboratories

With the concept of ‘Standardisation’ on everyone’s mind, the discussion naturally progressed towards the existence of institutions and companies capable of carrying out such programmes and their analytical methodologies. Analytical equipment manufacturer Waters was present with a dedicated stand and the presence of North American laboratories (e.g. ProVerde) to share technical know-how, with which we had the chance to discuss in depth our mutual experiences. With analytical standards and methodologies still absent for cannabinoids across the world, it provides a major opportunity on commercial grounds, as well as scientific and policy requirements.

We look forward to the 14th edition of this informative event!

 

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Catégories
Ecologie Gezondheid Medisch Onderzoek Productie Recreatief Wetgeving

Medical v Recreational Cannabis: Policy Considerations – Part B.

Introduction: Cannabis Policy

In the concluding remarks of Part A, we noted that the very setting of the dichotomy along with the stereotypical connotations associated with each term restricts and hides important aspects of the debate. But how and why, did this way of framing the debate come about?

The distinction became increasingly popular in the mouths of policy makers and people alike following a very simple conscious and subconscious observation: Cannabis policy needs reform. The latter was arrived at after years of failed repressive policies, failing on two main domains: 1) Public Health 2) Criminological considerations and prison population. It is within this context that novel approaches and policies, as well as public perception of the issue, have increasingly been centred on the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction.

Public Health & Harms Reduction

 A notable recent example of policy-analysis that resists the ‘Medical v Recreational’ temptation is a report originating from France (April 2016). Following a public debate in cooperation with La Direction Génerale de la Santé, the report tackles the issue for all ‘substances that can potentially lead to addictive behaviours’. It argues for a decriminalisation of all such substances (including Cannabis) regardless of nature of use, focusing instead on a ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’ (RdRD).

The strengths of such approaches are best appreciated form a Public Health perspective. However they fail to address another large-scale socio-economic aspect, leaving aside the issue of re-articulating the existing demand and providing adequate models of distribution*. On the other hand, they offer the best short-term approach on how to begin tackling the existing situation with its determinate and known parameters. It is interesting to examine some assumptions of the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction and their impacts in terms of distribution and economic activity.

Cannabis Legislation Models: Use, Distribution & Demand

It is often taken for granted that the ‘Medical v Recreational’ dichotomy maps exactly onto the ‘Regulated v Unregulated (Market)’ distinction. It is true that ‘Medical Cannabis’ (in our western understanding of the word ‘medical’) implies a highly regulated market and distribution mechanism. However it doesn’t follow that ‘Recreational Cannabis’ implies necessarily an unregulated market free of a ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’. A parallel illuminating example is the tobacco industry – taxes, limited marketing, restrictions on points of sale, age etc.

From a somewhat sceptical standpoint one could argue for a legalisation and regulation of Cannabis exclusively for medical purposes. Arguing on the basis of a fully regulated market along the lines of the existing Healthcare & Pharmaceutical models, stressing that such an approach is supposed to only benefit people that could potentially gain actual medical improvements on their existing conditions, thus implicitly taking the ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’ to its maximum application. However there are drawback to such restrictive policies.

The main concern of the above model is that it doesn’t address the so-called recreational demand for cannabis that exists in our (European) societies. Paralleling western Healthcare Models, ‘Medical Cannabis’ would most likely be available to ‘eligible’ patients on prescription, based on a set of criteria. The very high proportion of users who would not fit those criteria would still drive the ‘underground’ demand, thus maintaining the black market and its criminal organisations in place. Furthermore, it still criminalises a high proportion of users, thus failing to solve another societal issue (criminalisation of cannabis users is often linked to marginalisation which leads to violent behaviours).

Restrictive Medical Cannabis models also run the risk of excluding patients that could potentially benefit from cannabinoid consumption but do not fit the official criteria for prescription. It would be a mistake to try and fit a versatile plant like cannabis to our traditional Healthcare Distribution Models. There is also an argument to be made on human right’s grounds in the sense of the right to self-determination and self-care – allowing people to treat themselves the way they see fit. Furthermore, cannabinoid consumption is liable to bring overall improvements on quality of life which are not necessarily perceived from a purely bio-medical standpoint. Rigorous and well-funded scientific research is necessary to further our understanding of the plant and its beneficial applications. However, the implementation of those scientific findings into prescriptive, normative policies is a very different issue.

A Hybrid Model is therefore necessary to provide value for society as a whole, addressing public health concerns as well as criminological and socio-economic considerations and at the same time integrating cannabis into established medical and scientific practices. There are several questions that need answering though, pertaining with the distribution and Harms-Reduction principle of use that falls outside explicitly medical bounds. Distribution in that case can take several forms. Which is actually adopted in particular instances is highly dependent on cultural factors as well as goal-oriented considerations such as economic activity, employment, human rights, use reduction, public health etc. Approaches can vary from favouring small individual cultivation models to extremely liberal Colorado-Dispenser systems depending on local culture and perceived objectives of the policies (of course, in the majority of countries cannabis is still outright illegal).

A liberal proponent of cannabis legalisation might take, however, a different approach. Favouring the legalisation of cannabis simpliciter, the argument makes the point that in such scenario cannabis would effectively be available for any use (including medical), avoiding any discrimination based on usage and/or outcome. The merits of this view are to be found in its simplicity as well as its inherent non-discriminatory commitment – traits which ought to be transposed to actual policies. It nonetheless skips over some potential pitfalls.

Assuming that there is legitimate medical use for cannabis there need to be social-security mechanisms for reimbursement of treatment. This issue is notoriously problematic and a ‘simple legalisation’ policy does not guarantee the production of cannabis products and treatment procedures that are liable to be recognised by insurance bodies (both public and private) as reimbursable. This would lead to a major social injustice which is precisely what the above argument was purporting to dispense with. Furthermore, proper medical accompaniment, expertise and research should be available to those explicitly medical users that wish to access it. Again, there is no guarantee that such tangible and intangible social goods will emerge out of minimalist policies.

Medical v Recreational: What to make of it?

As we have previously argued, the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction cannot be effected by the plant in isolation, barring any contextualisation with actual usage and individual biological interaction. Even when usage is defined, the relationship is not straightforward considering that medical use can have recreational effects and vice versa. However the distinction is somewhat illuminating on a policy level – not in a descriptive / ontological sense, but rather as decent model to represent actual use-patterns. It helps bring into focus some issues of social justice, human rights and criminological considerations as argued above. There is one direct way of effecting this distinction, namely in the event whereby a person is explicitly treating a serious a recognised disease / condition with cannabis. In that case it can unambiguously be labelled as ‘Medical’ and enjoy the same status as other medical treatments.

In Part C. of this series of articles, a brief overview of some actual European examples will be presented.

*This is not aimed to be a severe criticism. The report is very thorough within its intended scope and provides detailed arguments for its conclusions, particularly in terms of Justice, Public Health & Safety, Employment, Social Life and Education.

 

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Catégories
Europa Gezondheid Medisch Onderzoek Productie Wetgeving

Medical v Recreational Cannabis: Initial Remarks – Part A.

Medical Cannabis: Debunking the Myth

A lot of air is being vented around the dichotomy of ‘Medical’ v ‘Recreational’ Cannabis. On the policy and public opinion level, this distinction is highly operative as countless legislative plans around the world are centered on it. However is there a sound scientific or medical basis that can support it?

The Plant & The Body: A Complex Interaction

In order to start the analysis of this question it is necessary to understand the plant & the human body holistically as a system of interaction. To the best of our current knowledge the Cannabis components active on the human body are Cannabinoids. These can, but do not necessarily carry with them psychotropic effects. Cannabinoids are particularly susceptible to interact in profound ways with the human body given a particularity of the latter. Humans have what has come to be known as the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The ECS is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and across various parts of the nervous system – it plays an important regulatory role in pain, appetite, mood and others*. In short, the human body is naturally calibrated to recognize and utilize the chemical compounds produced in Cannabis. Even though true, this statement is in danger of producing the naïve conclusion that any/all cannabinoids in any form of intake are beneficial and free of negative side-effects – a conclusion that needs to be resisted. What is undeniable on the other hand is that cannabinoids have a strong effect on the human regulatory system (of which ECS is a major component).

Human Consumption

Cannabis Sativa L. (Cannabis / Hemp) has been used by humans for thousands of years. With that in mind it is virtually impossible to give a comprehensive list of methods of consumption, let alone the psycho-social and / or medical and self-care motivations that underlie it. However interesting pointers can be given in order to commence an analysis relevant to the 21st century.

A salient operative distinction is the presence (or absence) of a particular condition for which Cannabis is used. In the former case, from a usage point of view, it is appropriate to apply the label ‘medical use of cannabis’. Things, however, are never as simple as they seem initially – important considerations are needed to supplement this simplistic distinction.

Firstly, it needs to be separated from the question of the Efficacy of the Treatment. The latter needs to be independently and objectively determined through appropriate scientific and quantitative standards. However the degree of efficacy doesn’t alter the motivation or use as medical from a subjective point of view. Furthermore, a distinction needs to be made between curative & condition management approaches. Cures are not the only relevant medical category. Secondly, the presence of a clearly defined condition is sufficient for the ‘medical’ label but not necessary inasmuch as one’s subjective experience of an ailment might not be represented in medical orthodoxy. More importantly, in line with the mood, sleep and appetite regulatory virtues of cannabinoids, maintaining an overall quality of life through their consumption has strong arguments for the ‘medical’ label. Illuminating examples are stress/anxiety management and insomnia suppression – both liable to have a huge impact in a person’s quality of life and overall health.

Another importantCannabinoid table JP-01 parameter to consider is which cannabinoids, or combination thereof, achieves the desired effects in an individual user, whether or not directly related to a specified treatment. There exists a general combinatory classification of cannabinoids and particular effects (see Table). However self-reported effects and outcomes are relevant given the uniqueness of each individual ECS. Furthermore, there is a strong a case to be made for ‘holistic’ effects of the plant as a combination of dozens of cannabinoids, terpenes and other micro-elements.

A major dichotomy within the cannabinoids is effected between the psychotropic and non-psychotropic elements. The best representatives of each group respectively are THC and CBD. However it is wrong to presume that psychoactive cannabinoids are automatically associated with recreational or non-medical uses. Research shows that both these cannabinoids have major medical applications that range from mental conditions to cancer and multiple sclerosis. THC rich cannabis can therefore have medical applications in all its forms and methods of consumption. In conclusion it is misguided to naively conclude that the psychotropic effects of Cannabis are devoid of medical virtues.

Quality, Transparency and Ethical Responsibility

Transparency and accountability are the marks of any and all ethically sourced products. It is undoubtedly true that products marketed as ‘medical’ share a much heavier degree of responsibility however the principle is valid for all products destined to human consumption. In that respect there exist quality standards which can effect the Medical v Recreational distinction. Complete product characterization and ‘free of harmful exogenous substances’ are necessary conditions for the achievement of the desired medical effects as well as the protection of the user from potential harms (that could be caused from exogenous substances). If therefore a ‘Medical Cannabis’ legislation is adopted, it is necessary that the products available to consumers be of the accepted consumer, ethical and safety standards. As such, standardization and testing is necessary for a wide application of such a program, e.g. on a national level.

Concluding Remarks

In conclusion it is important to say a few words on the semantics of the ‘Medical’ v ‘Recreational’ distinction. The very setting of the debate implies the mutual exclusion of each term involved. However this is, at the very least, a hasty assumption. The term ‘recreational’ has been further hi-jacked by the political debate and necessarily associated with pejorative connotations – with negative implications and stereotypes flourishing liberally. The point is not to defend one or the other use (or any use), rather illuminate the assumptions and premises of the argument and its modes of presentation.

Cannabinoids are chemically relevant to the human body in ways which our scientific culture has come to label medical or medicinal. This is the base-fact of the plant as a relation to the human body, regardless of particular uses and regional legislation. From there on, particular uses of the plant can be for explicitly medical or non-medical purposes – however the modality through which cannabinoids interact with the body can always be viewed from the medical point of view. It is therefore a logical conclusion that appropriate use of cannabinoids, in light of the right evidence and research, can have medically positive outcomes.

This concludes the end of Part A. of this presentation. In the second part (Part B.), policy implications will be explored and related with actual examples and developments on the European level in Part C.

*Non-Exhaustive list / Internet Sources

 

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Catégories
Europa Medisch Onderzoek Wetgeving

Medical v Recreational Cannabis: Some European Examples – Part C.

Introduction

The following is meant as a short overview of current state of affairs with regards to Cannabis and / or Drug Policies in three European countries. It is intended as a short supplement to Part A. and Part B.

Portugal

Portugal, since 2001, has ambitiously decriminalised all drug usage and possession, based on the assumption that it is a Public Health issue rather than a Criminal one. This approach does not make an explicit distinction, in the case of cannabis, with regards to medical or recreational use and is centred on a usage and harms reduction approach. In the words of Dr. João Goulão, Director-General of The General-Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies (SICAD) in Lisbon:

“It’s difficult to measure the impact of decriminalization as an independent variable; the evolution of the indicators has to be seen as a result of the development of all those responses. Considering different indicators of changing drug use patterns and demographics, some effects of decriminalization have included:

Portugal’s case is generally accepted, including by the French report discussed, as a relative success with promising aspects to implement more generally. Given that it is not cannabis specific, it is difficult to assess its impact, particularly in terms of Harms Reduction. Although a bold and commendable policy decision, it fails to address distribution side of things, particularly in the case of large-scale organised crime. The existence of such organisations can divert significant police resources and have spill-over effects into unrelated criminal activities, with drug distribution often being a major source of income. This also makes a case for the notion that no matter the amount of prevention, drug usage as whole is not an issue that can be tackled in isolation. It is extremely unlikely that demand for cannabis will evaporate instantaneously. It is therefore necessary to address the issue and distribution resulting from that demand.

For a detailed overview of all European countries’ drug policies and harm-reduction initiatives visit EMCDDA.

Germany

German Health Minister Hermann Gröhe has recently announced the country’s plans to make Medical Cannabis available to seriously ill patients by 2017. The law is rather an amendment on previously existing Medical Cannabis policies, relaxing conditions giving patients access to the plant.  Due to Germany’s federal makeup, there are various degrees of tolerance of cannabis not explicitly destined to medical use, with notable examples like Bremen and Berlin which are spearheading progressive policies.

With regards to medical cannabis and the 2017 amendment, there have been several critical voices, particularly when it comes to reimbursement and social security. Incorporated within the proposal is the clause that makes reimbursement available only to those patients that agree to participate in research programs. What those ‘research programs’ entail is not yet defined, however that requirement creates issues of social justice even in principle. Adding the mobility restriction of many patients this stands to be a very controversial issue.

Another issue of concern is production. With distribution ensured through the existing network of traditional pharmacies, Germany also intends meet its internal demand with domestic production. However initial estimates are skeptical of the country’s ability to develop appropriate facilities in time. In that case, Germany will be depended on imports. One can speculate as to the possible source of the product but it is hard to overlook Bedrocan form the Netherlands. Concerns from the Dutch experience pertaining to an over-centralisation of production are an interesting case-study for German politicians and decision-makers.

With an estimated 800.000 potential patients making use of the coming law, it is not an inconsequential change. It is very interesting to see how the implementation will be carried out, what measures are taken towards training the medical professionals to prescribe, monitor and get the better out of the plant, as well as the production and quality measures.

Combined with some relatively tolerant cannabis policies, this amendment to medical cannabis improves significantly the aggregated effect of the legislations, giving access to the plant to those that need it most while resisting the outright criminalisation of non-medical users. According to recent polls, the vast majority of Germans support the legalisation of medical cannabis, with a significant chunk of them favouring outright legalisation. It is therefore not unwarranted to expect further changes, whether regional or national, on cannabis legislation in Germany.

The Netherlands

The Netherlands are known worldwide for very a tolerant cannabis policy. With regards to medical cannabis, patients with prescriptions can buy purpose-grown cannabis from pharmacies since the spring of 2000. The product originates from Bedrocan, the grower designated by the Dutch Office of Medicinal Cannabis (part of the Ministry of Health) in order to ensure the necessary quality of the final product. Further Quality Control procedures and check-ups are performed along its production and distribution life-cycle.

However the Dutch notoriety for tolerant policies obfuscates various grey zones of the Dutch system. In particular, personal growing and cannabis growing in general is illegal (and attacked) in the Netherlands, which means that effectively coffee shops are breaking the law on a daily basis. This has created a monopoly – a monopoly which is significant on commercial terms, but even more so on ideological terms. The latter refers to the resulting conception of the plant as determined exclusively within the constraints of the coffee shop system (quality, use, method of delivery, personal and societal consequences etc.). This confusion, sustained by commercial interests, has created a chasm between perceived and actual cannabis and has fostered short-termism in plant manipulation and potency increase as opposed to sustainable scientific research & development.

Focusing on the explicitly medical side of things, a number of criticisms have been voiced by patients and patient organisations as well as NGO’s such as ENCOD (For a 2015 ENCOD-sponsored report click here). Criticisms tend to converge on the following points:

  1. Lack of strains and medical cannabis derivatives (edibles, oils, pills etc.)
  2. Overall quality of final product
  3. Lack of dedicated training for health professionals resulting in a reluctance towards prescribing cannabis

A highly centralised system, modeled on some aspects of the existing pharmaceutical industry, has created a very monolithic environment for medical cannabis users. With limits placed on the strains and products that can be labelled ‘medicinal’, the patient’s ability to find the right care for themselves is severely restricted. Furthermore, stringent decontamination methodology with gamma-ray irradiation over the final product, has a created a quality-compromised product. The main reason being, according to literature, the fact that gamma-rays destroy the terpenes of the plant, responsible for cannabis’ distinctive taste and smell. It is also believed, although scientific confirmation is still lacking, that terpenes can have a modulatory effect on the main cannabinoids – the entourage effect (Gamma-ray irradiation is an FDA approved technique for decontamination of food products, particularly ones destined for import / export).

With a relatively restrictive list of ‘recognised conditions’, one could easily argue this as a negative of the system on both medical and social justice / human rights grounds. Coupled with a reported reluctant health establishment to prescribe cannabis, serious concerns have been voiced over the ability to access the medicine. The latter is further aggravated by a repressive policy on personal growth. A February 2016 court ruling, in a highly publicised case, gave permission to a patient to grow his own cannabis for treating his HIV. This is however an individual result that applies only to that person which further points out the need for access to medicine.

Overall the Dutch system has the merits of not criminalising a whole section of its population who choose to use cannabis for whatever reason. However, reluctance to update and evolve the system, namely by integrating production into mainstream economic activity, the underground market hasn’t evaporated. This can partly be explained away by what is known as the ‘neighbour effect’ – meaning that neighbouring countries with repressive cannabis legislations drive that demand. However, there are important reasons to doubt that argument when the origins of coffee shop cannabis is considered. Furthermore, the Netherlands has a relatively sophisticated, albeit extremely rigid, medical cannabis infrastructure. However the aggregate of both policies stands to greatly benefit from a progressive amendment.

This concludes our short introductory articles on Medical v Recreational Cannabis. You can find Part A. and Part B. on their respective links.

More detailed presentations and argumentation of this work is available for interested parties. Please do not hesitate to contact us in this regard by clicking here.

 

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Catégories
Gezondheid Onderzoek Social Clubs Wetgeving

Cannabis Social Club: Recent Developments in Belgium & the Netherlands

Cannabis Social Clubs – 10 years on

Ten years since the emergence of Trekt Uw Plant (TUP) in Belgium – pioneers of the Cannabis Social Club (CSC) model – CSCs have gone through various motions across Europe. The aim of this short article is to retrace a rough, and by no means exhaustive, topology of these recent developments focusing on Belgium and the Netherlands.

Belgian Trials & Closures

The tragic passing of Mr Joep Oomen – emblematic leader of TUP & ENCOD – coincided with a relative recession of the CSC movement in Belgium. The success of TUP both legally and practically was the catalyst for the setting up of similar organisations along with an activist impetus for change. However, the past months have effected a pragmatic rebuttal of many such efforts. Mambo Social Club lost its ‘day in court’, convicted for possession (but acquitted for charges of ’incitement to’ or ’facilitation of drug use’). Even though Mambo SC will appeal the decision, the latter is unquestionably a blow in terms of legal precedent*.

Further indications of pragmatic restrictions came when the continued efforts of Liege Social Club ‘Peace’ to create a dialogue with the local authorities were routinely rebuffed – whilst the organisation is at its infancy from and operational point of view. After almost two years of activity, CSC The Herbclub saw its doors close in June 2016 due to unspecified internal reasons. These legal, practical and pragmatic inefficiencies of the various Belgian CSCs are the reflection of an uncompromising rigidity from the Belgian authorities combined with a real need for structural change – perceived or not.

Paradoxically, Belgium is (accidentally) in possession of a suitable legal fame-work for CSCs, even though cannabis is strictly illegal. This is provided by the 2003/2005 directive which allows the possession / cultivation of one female cannabis plant per adult. Even though the ‘collectivisation’ of this provision in the form of CSCs is a non-trivial issue, the gap is not ‘unbridgeable’ particularly given some external factors: 1) existing Belgian production, consumption and (illegal) export of cannabis 2) a coherent a cohesively expressed public demand – along with an acute sense of social and ethical responsibility and transparency. 3) Public Health & Medical Cannabis

Even with the introduction of Sativex to the Belgian market, implicitly reproducing the notion that cannabinoids have at least some medical value, the political class has failed at the minimal task of initiating a meaningful public debate on cannabis – let alone leading serious initiatives of reform or the implementation of a (UN mandated) Cannabis Bureau**.

Dutch Troubles

In the Netherlands CSCs have faced a continued battle for existence in an environment dominated by commercialisation of cannabis. The ambiguity rests on the fact that coffeeshops are technically ‘tolerated’ given the existing cannabis growing / production laws. Where the authorities show tolerance towards coffeeshops, tables are turned with regards to CSCs. Statutes concerning ‘personal growing’ of 0-5 plants where toughened up whilst the sale of growing equipment was outright banned. Evidently the measure failed to impact coffeeshop supply, it was however an attack on a fundamental premise of CSCs which curtailed timid existing efforts.

New Ideas: Research, Medical Cannabis & Quality Control

Organisational limitations of CSCs in their present form along with an unresponsive public policy can be a pessimistic assessment of the past 18-24 months in Belgium and the Netherlands. Paralleling this analysis however, there are clear markers pointing towards a development of CSCs both on the conceptual and practical level. Academically, the University of Ghent has obtained a an FWO research grant for the first ‘in depth empirical analysis of the [CSC] model as developed in Belgium’ – led by Professor Tom Decorte. Speaking to Mafalda Pradal, doing her PhD as part of this project, says ‘The overarching aim of the project is to improve the understanding of the Cannabis Social Club phenomenon as a model for the supply of cannabis’. In addition to empirically gathered operational and structural descriptions of CSCs and CSC-members’ demographics, the study aims to assess the ‘quality, purity and potency of the cannabis produced and distributed by the Belgian CSCs’. Conducted by Prof. Dr. Jan Tytgat and Prof. Dr. Eva Cuypers, ‘pending approval from FAGG, the toxicological analysis of cannabis samples is expected to start in 2017’. The study is due to complete in 2019.

As a long a term research project, this initiative represents a clear indication that the CSC model carries some weight in cannabis policy debates (informally at least). It is a well-defined and rational assessment of a current model whilst adhering to evidence-based methodological criteria. Even though some limitations can be found in the scope of research and conceptual reach, it is an eagerly awaited assessment. Whilst the exact efficacies that made this project possible are difficult to establish, it represents a maturing of the CSC movement by virtue of the latter’s verifiable social inscription through academic research.

This ‘step in the right direction’ is reflected in the recent activities of younger CSCs in terms of their operational ethos and pragmatic understanding of the present legal and policy situation. A notable example is MCC VZW – active since 2015. Guy Hoffman, its founder, has explained to us his commitment in a number of measures and protocols looking to increase product quality, purity and diversity of cannabis products as well as operational efficiency and transparency. It has to be added that MCC is an explicitly Medical social club (MCSC) – understood in terms of membership criteria. Specific measures include considerable efforts in clean room technology implementation in production, patient/member follow up and data-collection, product labelling and packaging amongst others.

MCC’s attitude, whether consciously or not, demonstrates a developed sense of social responsibility as well as a pragmatic understanding of organisational limitations – addressing them by implementing evidence-based methodologies to increase efficiency, transparency and quality standards. The pragmatic attitude is extended to legal and policy considerations whereby it is understood that legitimisation is inevitably linked with the above standards. This ethos is mirrored in the activities of Mr Romain Gosseries, who is in the process of setting up his own Medical Cannabis organisation along the MCSC model. His organisation, MCRC (Medical Cannabis Research & Consultancy), aims to grow specifically medical cannabis along, although not identical to, the BEDROCAN protocols. This implies rigorous growing conditions, strain stabilisation and quality control analyses of the plants to verify the claimed standards. There is a long-term ambition behind MCRC which is to provide a sustainable model for the provision of the Belgian medical cannabis needs. Given the lack of a Belgian Cannabis Bureau the project faces considerable political obstacles. The idea, however, remains to countenance political rigidity with solutions crafted from established (and comparable) commercial / production standards as well as a sense of social responsibility.

CSC as a concept is a mutant. It is a concept standing for certain core values but it often associates with other principles of self-organisation. The result is a great diversity in the form of CSCs across Europe. Exemplifying that point is the case of another Belgian cooperative (anonymity preferred), which is currently setting up what they call a ‘communal garden’. The idea is for people to join in the communal garden to the best of their abilities and resources, whilst a core of herbalists take care of plants, and share in the harvests. The principle extends beyond cannabis and the aim is to have it running by the end of summer 2016. While previous cases examined showed the practical and organisational limitations of CSCs, other very current cases exemplify the drive of individuals involved in the sector imbued by a sense of renewal and progress.

Human Rights Arguments from the Netherlands

Further away from the grassroots origins of CSCs, Radboud University has provided an unexpected argument for the legitimisation of CSCs. The paper in question was published in the spring of 2016 and examined the possibility of justifying some form of cannabis production / consumption on human rights grounds (as opposed to standard UN conventions). Without being explicitly voiced in support of CSCs, Mr Everhardt of the city of Utrecht, has harpooned onto the new argument in order to re-ignite the debate within his community – particularly when it comes to alternatives in cannabis regulation and modes of production. The typical societal and public health benefits are targeted.

Invoking human rights with regards to organisational forms of cannabis consumption / production is something previously alluded to in an article on Medical v Recreational Cannabis. However, the argument was not spelled out and it ran on a different direction to the one considered here, which is strictly of the domain of international law. The principle is nonetheless similar to some extent in the sense that given some basic conditions are met, there is an unalterable right to self-determination – over and above particular international conventions as the paper argues.

Concluding Remarks: Cannabis Social Club Endurance

A short overview of recent developments in CSCs obtains two contrasting pictures. Shortcomings, legal and practical limitations of CSCs are met by renewed efforts, with new organisations picking up where others left off. This indicates that the longevity of CSCs is at issue, with TUP being the only notable exception. It also indicates that among adversity, CSCs as a concept and mode of organisation persists and it is often related with close notions of Medical Cannabis and Self-Care. Finding a regulatory frame encompassing these activities is necessary in order for CSCs to find the legitimization they require for delivering the organisational & societal benefits they claim.

*Conflicting info gathered on that point

**UN conventions state that any Nation State desiring a Cannabis Program (medical or other) need to establish a Cannabis Bureau

 

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Catégories
Ecologie Kleding Onderzoek Productie

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Catégories
Ecologie Kleding Mode Productie

De merken

Good Guys is hét schoenenmerk dat in 2014 én 2015 de PETA award (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) kreeg voor “Best Men Shoes”  & “Vegan To Keep an Eye on 2015”. Het label werd in 2010 opgericht en is nu een must have voor de ethical fashionista. De schoenen worden geproduceerd in Portugal en zijn sweatshop free. Zij kiezen voor materialen zoals microfiber, canvas en natuurlijk rubber die resulteren in lichte, waterdichte duurzame en comfortabele producten.

Fabbrikka is een gloednieuw Belgisch/Spaans merk en zij willen aantonen dat kledij ook duurzaam en eerlijk geproduceerd kan zijn. Hun sweaters en T-shirts hebben een speels karakter en zijn zeer comfortabel. Hun stoffen dragen het GOTS label en hun collecties worden op een eerlijke manier geproduceerd in Barcelona. 

Ecologische stoffen én fair geproduceerd werd de basis boodschap. Maar nog meer dan dat streeft Hempage naar een wereld waarin de hennepvezel zijn reputatie terug wint. Zij produceren niet alleen hennepkledij, maar verrichten tevens onderzoek naar de extractie van de vezels om zo de kwaliteit ervan te blijven optimaliseren. Verder trachten ze hennep ook in andere branches op de markt te krijgen zoals in isolatiemateriaal.

De sieraden van A Beautiful Story zijn handgemaakt en worden fairtrade geproduceerd in Nepal, met als doel banen te creëren op plekken waar dit het hardst nodig zijn.

Thought ontstond vanuit het verlangen om natuurlijke kleding te dragen. Bamboe, bio katoen, wol en hennep zijn allen vrij van pesticiden en chemicalieën en zijn vaak zachter en sterker. Bovendien is de productie ervan beter voor het milieu. Zij hanteren een Code of Conduct om zo de werkomstandigheden en salarissen van de arbeiders te bewaken.

Miss Green is een Nederlands kledingmerk en ontwerpt duurzame kleding voor vrouwen. Zij produceren alleen in Europese en Indiase ateliers met een GOTS-certificaat en een SA8000-standaard (rechten arbeiders beschermen). Zij werken enkel met fabrieken die gecertificeerd zijn en met biologische producten werken.

Kaliber is een jong Berlijns label. Hoge kwaliteit en duurzaamheid zijn essentieel bij Kaliber fashion. Contrasten in het design, kwaliteitsvolle materialen in combinatie met casual vormgeving zijn karakteristiek voor dit merk. Massaproductie en ongelimiteerde consumptie zijn géén alternatief, maar focussen zich op fair trade en overwegend veganistische productie, hetgeen bijdraagt tot het algemeen bewustzijn van duurzaamheid.

Päälä is een biologische kledinglabel voor vrouwen, hand screen geprint in Amsterdam. De inkt die ze gebruiken is de meest milieuvriendelijke en is op water gebaseerd. De stoffen zijn altijd duurzaam en GOTS-gecertificeerd. Zo kiezen ze voor Tencel Lyocell, Modal viscose (By Lenzing), hennep, linen en duurzame Bamboo viscose.

Hun leveranciers zijn allen lid bij Fair Wear Foundation en proberen om de productie zo dicht mogelijk bij Amsterdam te houden.

Colfair is een Pools merk en ontwerpt T-shirts uit 100% bio katoen, GOTS gecertificeerd (Global Orgainc Textile Standard). Bij het maken van de prints wordt er enkele gebruik gemaakt van ecologische kleurstoffen.
Verder kiezen ze een verpakkingsmateriaal zorgvuldig uit: ecologisch verantwoord bio afbreekbaar en gedecoreerd met watergebaseerde prints.

Schulz by crowd is een Scandinavisch crowd sourced kledingmerk dat zich focust op design en prints. Dit nieuw project helpt designers om hun ontwerpen op de markt te krijgen. Zij focussen zich op duurzaamheid in elke schakel van de productie; van het vinden de juiste leverancier tot het gebruik van biologisch en duurzame producten waar mogelijk is. Ze hanteren een stricte Code of Conduct dat elke leverancier moet ondertekenen en alle basis ontwerpen zijn geproduceerd uit GOTS gecertificeerd bio katoen.
 Als bedrijf dragen zij ook het GOTS label wat wil zeggen dat ze aan strenge regels verbonden zijn in verband met werk condities en salarissen van de arbeiders.

Rains is een Deens merk opgericht in 2012. Zij interpreteerden de traditionele rubberen regenjas op hun manier. Verder bieden ze ook waterproof rugzakken, tassen en accessoires aan voor de bewuste consument. Zij doen hun zaken op een ethisch verantwoorde en milieuvriendelijke manier. Mensenrechten en werkomstandigheden, anti-corruptie, mileu & charity zijn aspecten die op constante basis worden geëvalueerd en waar mogelijk verbetert.

Een combinatie van eco vriendelijke vezels, hoge kwaliteit en funky ontwerpen, maakt Up-rise kleding uniek en ‘ready to wear for people who care…’

Dit is het eerste en tot nu toe enige hennep kleding merk van België!

Up-rise collecties zijn gemaakt van hennep, bio katoen en soja. Up-rise kiest ervoor om te werken met hennep vanwege de vele voordelen en milieuvriendelijke eigenschappen.

Up-rise conscious hemp wear werkt samen met partners die dezelfde ethische waarden in de rechten van de mens en milieu delen.

www.up-rise.be

Armed Angels is een Duits merk voor mannen en vrouwen en kenmerkt zich door hedendaagse collecties. Hiervoor doen zijn beroep op duurzame materialen zoals bio katoen, ecologisch linen & wol, gerycleerd polyester, Lenzing Modal® and Tencel® en zijn GOTS gecertificeerd sinds 2011.

Zij werken salen met Fairtrade & Fair Wear Foundation om te voldoen aan de standaarden voor ethisch verantwoorde werkomstandigheden.

https://www.armedangels.de/en/

Het verhaal van Nomads begon in het jaar 2000 vanuit een oude VW bus met slechts een paar rollen stof en enkele naaimachines. De naam ‘Nomads’ is geïnspireerd op hun toenmalige ‘nomaden’ bestaan. 

Ondertussen zijn ‘Nomads’ ontwerpen zo populair dat ze nu een uitgebreide lijn van kleding  produceren voor mannen en vrouwen. De collecties zijn gemaakt van hennep, organisch katoen, wol en soja.

Als gevolg van de toegenomen vraag, heeft Nomads zijn productie verplaatst naar een fabriek in China, die zij in 2007 bezocht. Deze fabriek ligt in de buurt van waar veel van de hennep stoffen afkomstig van zijn en de arbeidsomstandigheden in deze fabriek hebben hun verwachtingen ver overtroffen! 

www.nomadshempwear.com

Hemp Hoodlamb staat bekend om zijn uiterst warme en functionele winterjassen. Deze zijn vervaardigd uit een combinatie van hennep en biologisch katoen.

Ondertussen bieden ze een brede waaier kledij voor zowel vrouwen als mannen in winter- en zomercollecties. Hierbij garanderen ze een optimale kwaliteit en ecologisch verantwoorde stoffen.

Bovendien voorziet Hemp Hoodlamb het Sea Shepherd-team (Greenpeace) van kledij op hun missies! 

www.hoodlamb.com/

Kings of Indigo ontstond in 2010 te Amsterdam. Zij staan bekend om hun denims van uiterst sterke kwaliteit. K.O.I. doet hiervoor zoveel mogelijk beroep op gerecycleerde materialen (garen) en combineert dit met biologisch katoen.

Naast milieuvriendelijke aspecten deelt K.O.I. de ethische waarden van de mens en zijn ‘proud member’ van Fair Wear Foundation!

www.kingsofindigo.com/

Knowledge Cotton Apparel richt zich exclusief op herenkledij. Hun collecties worden volledig vervaardigd uit gecertificeerd organisch katoen, onder de meest milieubewuste omstandigheden.

Naast katoen gebruikt het Scandinavische merk ‘happy sheep wool’ en een innovatief voeringmateriaal gemaakt van gerecyclede frisdrankflessen.

http://knowledgecottonapparel.com/#/

Catégories
Onderzoek

Automatische concepten

 

Good Guys is hét schoenenmerk dat in 2014 én 2015 de PETA award (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) kreeg voor “Best Men Shoes”  & “Vegan To Keep an Eye on 2015”. Het label werd in 2010 opgericht en is nu een must have voor de ethical fashionista. De schoenen worden geproduceerd in Portugal en zijn sweatshop free. Zij kiezen voor materialen zoals microfiber, canvas en natuurlijk rubber die resulteren in lichte, waterdichte duurzame en comfortabele producten.

Fabbrikka is een gloednieuw Belgisch/Spaans merk en zij willen aantonen dat kledij ook duurzaam en eerlijk geproduceerd kan zijn. Hun sweaters en T-shirts hebben een speels karakter en zijn zeer comfortabel. Hun stoffen dragen het GOTS label en hun collecties worden op een eerlijke manier geproduceerd in Barcelona. 

Ecologische stoffen én fair geproduceerd werd de basis boodschap. Maar nog meer dan dat streeft Hempage naar een wereld waarin de hennepvezel zijn reputatie terug wint. Zij produceren niet alleen hennepkledij, maar verrichten tevens onderzoek naar de extractie van de vezels om zo de kwaliteit ervan te blijven optimaliseren. Verder trachten ze hennep ook in andere branches op de markt te krijgen zoals in isolatiemateriaal.

De sieraden van A Beautiful Story zijn handgemaakt en worden fairtrade geproduceerd in Nepal, met als doel banen te creëren op plekken waar dit het hardst nodig zijn.

Thought ontstond vanuit het verlangen om natuurlijke kleding te dragen. Bamboe, bio katoen, wol en hennep zijn allen vrij van pesticiden en chemicalieën en zijn vaak zachter en sterker. Bovendien is de productie ervan beter voor het milieu. Zij hanteren een Code of Conduct om zo de werkomstandigheden en salarissen van de arbeiders te bewaken.

Miss Green is een Nederlands kledingmerk en ontwerpt duurzame kleding voor vrouwen. Zij produceren alleen in Europese en Indiase ateliers met een GOTS-certificaat en een SA8000-standaard (rechten arbeiders beschermen). Zij werken enkel met fabrieken die gecertificeerd zijn en met biologische producten werken.

Kaliber is een jong Berlijns label. Hoge kwaliteit en duurzaamheid zijn essentieel bij Kaliber fashion. Contrasten in het design, kwaliteitsvolle materialen in combinatie met casual vormgeving zijn karakteristiek voor dit merk. Massaproductie en ongelimiteerde consumptie zijn géén alternatief, maar focussen zich op fair trade en overwegend veganistische productie, hetgeen bijdraagt tot het algemeen bewustzijn van duurzaamheid.

Päälä is een biologische kledinglabel voor vrouwen, hand screen geprint in Amsterdam. De inkt die ze gebruiken is de meest milieuvriendelijke en is op water gebaseerd. De stoffen zijn altijd duurzaam en GOTS-gecertificeerd. Zo kiezen ze voor Tencel Lyocell, Modal viscose (By Lenzing), hennep, linen en duurzame Bamboo viscose.

Hun leveranciers zijn allen lid bij Fair Wear Foundation en proberen om de productie zo dicht mogelijk bij Amsterdam te houden.

Colfair is een Pools merk en ontwerpt T-shirts uit 100% bio katoen, GOTS gecertificeerd (Global Orgainc Textile Standard). Bij het maken van de prints wordt er enkele gebruik gemaakt van ecologische kleurstoffen.
Verder kiezen ze een verpakkingsmateriaal zorgvuldig uit: ecologisch verantwoord bio afbreekbaar en gedecoreerd met watergebaseerde prints.

Schulz by crowd is een Scandinavisch crowd sourced kledingmerk dat zich focust op design en prints. Dit nieuw project helpt designers om hun ontwerpen op de markt te krijgen. Zij focussen zich op duurzaamheid in elke schakel van de productie; van het vinden de juiste leverancier tot het gebruik van biologisch en duurzame producten waar mogelijk is. Ze hanteren een stricte Code of Conduct dat elke leverancier moet ondertekenen en alle basis ontwerpen zijn geproduceerd uit GOTS gecertificeerd bio katoen.
 Als bedrijf dragen zij ook het GOTS label wat wil zeggen dat ze aan strenge regels verbonden zijn in verband met werk condities en salarissen van de arbeiders.

Rains is een Deens merk opgericht in 2012. Zij interpreteerden de traditionele rubberen regenjas op hun manier. Verder bieden ze ook waterproof rugzakken, tassen en accessoires aan voor de bewuste consument. Zij doen hun zaken op een ethisch verantwoorde en milieuvriendelijke manier. Mensenrechten en werkomstandigheden, anti-corruptie, mileu & charity zijn aspecten die op constante basis worden geëvalueerd en waar mogelijk verbetert.

Een combinatie van eco vriendelijke vezels, hoge kwaliteit en funky ontwerpen, maakt Up-rise kleding uniek en ‘ready to wear for people who care…’

Dit is het eerste en tot nu toe enige hennep kleding merk van België!

Up-rise collecties zijn gemaakt van hennep, bio katoen en soja. Up-rise kiest ervoor om te werken met hennep vanwege de vele voordelen en milieuvriendelijke eigenschappen.

Up-rise conscious hemp wear werkt samen met partners die dezelfde ethische waarden in de rechten van de mens en milieu delen.

www.up-rise.be

Armed Angels is een Duits merk voor mannen en vrouwen en kenmerkt zich door hedendaagse collecties. Hiervoor doen zijn beroep op duurzame materialen zoals bio katoen, ecologisch linen & wol, gerycleerd polyester, Lenzing Modal® and Tencel® en zijn GOTS gecertificeerd sinds 2011.

Zij werken salen met Fairtrade & Fair Wear Foundation om te voldoen aan de standaarden voor ethisch verantwoorde werkomstandigheden.

https://www.armedangels.de/en/

Het verhaal van Nomads begon in het jaar 2000 vanuit een oude VW bus met slechts een paar rollen stof en enkele naaimachines. De naam ‘Nomads’ is geïnspireerd op hun toenmalige ‘nomaden’ bestaan. 

Ondertussen zijn ‘Nomads’ ontwerpen zo populair dat ze nu een uitgebreide lijn van kleding  produceren voor mannen en vrouwen. De collecties zijn gemaakt van hennep, organisch katoen, wol en soja.

Als gevolg van de toegenomen vraag, heeft Nomads zijn productie verplaatst naar een fabriek in China, die zij in 2007 bezocht. Deze fabriek ligt in de buurt van waar veel van de hennep stoffen afkomstig van zijn en de arbeidsomstandigheden in deze fabriek hebben hun verwachtingen ver overtroffen! 

www.nomadshempwear.com

Hemp Hoodlamb staat bekend om zijn uiterst warme en functionele winterjassen. Deze zijn vervaardigd uit een combinatie van hennep en biologisch katoen.

Ondertussen bieden ze een brede waaier kledij voor zowel vrouwen als mannen in winter- en zomercollecties. Hierbij garanderen ze een optimale kwaliteit en ecologisch verantwoorde stoffen.

Bovendien voorziet Hemp Hoodlamb het Sea Shepherd-team (Greenpeace) van kledij op hun missies! 

www.hoodlamb.com/

Kings of Indigo ontstond in 2010 te Amsterdam. Zij staan bekend om hun denims van uiterst sterke kwaliteit. K.O.I. doet hiervoor zoveel mogelijk beroep op gerecycleerde materialen (garen) en combineert dit met biologisch katoen.

Naast milieuvriendelijke aspecten deelt K.O.I. de ethische waarden van de mens en zijn ‘proud member’ van Fair Wear Foundation!

www.kingsofindigo.com/

Knowledge Cotton Apparel richt zich exclusief op herenkledij. Hun collecties worden volledig vervaardigd uit gecertificeerd organisch katoen, onder de meest milieubewuste omstandigheden.

Naast katoen gebruikt het Scandinavische merk ‘happy sheep wool’ en een innovatief voeringmateriaal gemaakt van gerecyclede frisdrankflessen.

http://knowledgecottonapparel.com/#/

Catégories
Gezondheid Voeding

Le chanvre, la petite graine qui monte en cuisine

 

Encore assez peu connues, ces petites graines sont très riches en bons acides gras et en protéines. Disponibles en graines -décortiquées ou non-, sous forme d’huile ou même de farine, comment les cuisiner? Quels sont leurs bienfaits? Et les risques?

Qu’est-ce que le chanvre?

Le chanvre cultivé est une plante herbacée de l’espèce cannabis sativa. Pour produire des graines de chanvre, les agriculteurs utilisent bien sûr des variétés particulières, complètement légales: “en France et en Europe, nous devons produire du chanvre qui contient moins de 0,2% de THC [la molécule du cannabis ayant des effets psychotropes]”, explique Pascal Mortoire, directeur de la Chanvrière, une coopérative de production et de transformation du chanvre installée dans l’Aube.  

LIRE AUSSI >> À consommer de préférence: On est tous fous de graines 

 
 

Ainsi, on parle de “chanvre industriel” et de “chanvre agricole”, à bien différencier du “chanvre à usage récréatif”, illégal. Les graines de chanvre, ou “chènevis”, sont récoltées à partir de mi-septembre. Elles sont destinées à l’alimentation des animaux (oiseaux, bétail), mais aussi à la consommation humaine.  

Quels sont les bienfaits de la graine de chanvre?

C’est une petite graine pleine de vertus: d’une part, la graine de chanvre contient entre 21 et 24% de de protéines végétales facilement digérées et de très bonne qualité. En effet, elle a l’avantage d’apporter tous les acides aminés essentiels pour les humains. Alors que, par exemple, les céréales manquent de lysine et les légumineuses de méthionine. 

 

Ensuite, la graine de chanvre contient 33% de lipides, principalement des “bons” acides gras: “la matière grasse est composée de 10% d’acides gras insaturés, 13% d’acides gras mono-insaturés, et 77% d’acides gras polyinsaturés”, précise Pascal Mortoire. Dans cette dernière catégorie, on trouve des oméga-3 (qui sont entre autres bénéfiques pour la santé cardiovasculaire) et des oméga-6.  

Le ratio entre ces deux acides gras essentiels est très important pour le bon fonctionnement de l’organisme. Or, on consomme en général trop d’oméga-6 par rapport aux oméga-3. Justement, la graine de chanvre présente un équilibre optimal entre oméga-3 et oméga-6.  

Enfin, “le chènevis contient beaucoup de vitamine E. Mais aussi du magnésium, du fer et du zinc”, poursuit Pascal Mortoire.  

Y a-t-il des risques?

La filière chanvre est strictement réglementée et contrôlée: le chanvre commercialisé n’a donc aucun effet psychotrope. Toutefois, vérifiez bien les dates de péremption. En outre, pour préserver les qualités nutritionnelles du chanvre, il vaut mieux conserver les graines et les bouteilles d’huile dans un placard, loin de toute source de chaleur.  

Sous quelles formes le trouve-t-on en cuisine?

Le chanvre se consomme sous forme de graines. À partir de ces graines, on fabrique aussi de l’huile de chanvre, mais également de la farine de chanvre, intéressante pour les personnes coeliaques, car elle ne contient pas de gluten.  

Comment cuisiner la graine de chanvre?

“Le goût de l’huile ou des graines est principalement apporté par la matière grasse. La première touche perçue est légèrement herbacée. Ensuite, le second goût est plus proche de la noisette“, explique Pascal Mortoire.  

Avec les graines. Parsemez vos salades de graines de chanvre, glissez-les dans une vinaigrette pour ajouter du croquant à votre sauce, saupoudrez-en un bol de muesli, un yaourt ou pourquoi pas le glaçage d’un cake. “Vous pouvez également préparer une boisson au chanvre en mixant des graines avec de l’eau et un peu de sucre, ou encore des chocolats maison aux graines de chanvre”, conseille le directeur de la Chanvrière.  

Avec la farine et l’huile. La farine peut être utilisée dans des gâteaux et l’huile est un excellent assaisonnement. “Son goût se révèle en milieu légèrement acide. On peut ainsi faire des tomates-mozarella, avec de l’huile de chanvre et un filet de citron. Ou des fraises avec de l’huile de chanvre, du citron et du vinaigre balsamique. Dans les pâtes, le côté herbeux de l’huile se marie très bien avec le basilic”, recommande Pascal Mortoire.  

Quelles autres utilisations?

L’huile de graines de chanvre est également utilisée en cosmétique. Et, pas de gâchis, les autres parties de la plante sont aussi utilisées. “Le chanvre est composé de deux autres matières nobles. La fibre et le bois, appelé chènevotte”, précise Pascal Mortoire. Les fibres servent dans le textile, la fabrication de papiers, la plasturgie, l’isolation… Quand à la chènevotte, elle est utilisée comme paillage, ou encore dans le bâtiment.  

Même si le chanvre est une culture traditionnelle ancienne dans plusieurs régions de France (notamment pour fabriquer des voiles pour les bateaux), la filière connaît une forte renaissance depuis quelques années.  

Catégories
Ecologie Onderzoek Productie

Le chanvre : culture écologique et durable

Le chanvre : culture écologique et durable

http://www.technichanvre.com/informations/le-chanvre-culture-ecologique-et-durable/

« Le Chanvre est une très ancienne culture française, antérieure au Moyen Age. Chaque ferme possédait sa chènevière, située sur les meilleures terres qui bénéficiaient d’une partie des engrais organiques, pour les besoins personnels des exploitants. Tout était utilisé dans cette plante, cultivée dans toutes les régions : la graine (chènevis)pressée donnait de l’huile pour l’éclairage, la fabrication de glu, de savon et plus tard de peinture (son utilisation alimentaire a toujours été très localisée) ; le tourteau résiduel servait à l’alimentation animale ; la tige, défibrée, produisait de la filasse permettant la fabrication de ficelles et cordages ou, après filage et tissage, la confection de toiles plus ou moins fines ; la marine à voile et les armées furent les plus importantes consommatrices du chanvre (cordes, élingues, voiles, sacs, tentes, vêtements, colmatage des coques, filets de pêche, sellerie, etc…). La chènevotte, cellulose à pouvoir calorifique, située à l’intérieur de la tige, servait à aviver le feu de l’âtre des domiciles ou des ateliers ; elle permit la fabrication d’allumettes soufrées. »

Extrait de : « Le Chanvre en France » – Auteur : Henri Alain Ségalen – Editions du Rouergue

Le chanvre est une culture annuelle cultivée en Europe depuis l’arrivée des Celtes. Il se sème entre mars et avril pour une récolte entre septembre et octobre. Il suffit d’un semoir à blé pour le semis, dans une terre profonde (semi 50 – 55 kg/ha). Contrairement à ce que l’on peut entendre la plante a besoin d’un minimum d’eau pour ses phases de croissance (juin) et de floraison (Août). La racine fasciculée plonge jusqu’à 2 m de profondeur pour chercher ses nutriments. Les hauteurs de plantes sont variables en fonction des variétés ; elles peuvent atteindre 3 m… Le chanvre industriel est aussi une culture très règlementée, et l’Europe ne permet la culture d’une trentaine de variétés, toutes homologuées au catalogue européen, avec un taux de THC < 0.2 %. En règle générale, l’agriculteur passe un contrat de culture avec un transformateur agréé, qui lui achètera les produits de récolte.

 

Avec un cycle court de 100 jours, cette culture reste très intéressante pour les agriculteurs car paille et graines (chènevis) sont valorisables.
La plus grande contrainte vient de la récolte… Le fauchage ou le moissonnage sont mécanisés, mais si les fibres très solides du chanvre se prennent dans les roulements des machines, la casse peut être sérieuse… Aujourd’hui les machines sont plus adaptées, mais surtout dans les grandes zones de productions. Une fois fauchée la paille est séchée sur champs avant d’être conditionnée en balles ou en bottes.

La plante sèche contient deux parties :

  • L’ÉCORCE qui contient la fibre et qui nous sert à fabriquer la laine de chanvre. Cette partie représente 30 à 35% du volume de la paille.
  • L’INTÉRIEUR DE LA TIGE est le bois de la plante que l’on appelle la chènevotte. Cette partie représente 65 à 70% du volume de la paille.

Les intérêts de la culture :

  • une culture à cycle court
  • pas de traitement en cours de culture
  • supprime seul les adventices
  • des produits de récolte valorisables (fibres, chènevotte, graines)
  • une excellente tête d’assolement
  • amélioration des sols en rotation de culture
  • moyenne de rendement à l’hectare de : 7 à 8T en paille – 500kg à 1.5T de graines
  • une multitudes d’applications pour l’avenir